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Watson Research Center P. Memory appears to be everywhere in organizations; yet, the term has been limited to a few uses. In this paper we examine what memory in an organization really is. Based on an ethnographic study of a telephone hotline group, this paper presents a micro-level analysis of a hotline call, the work activity surrounding the call, and the memory used in the work activity.
Instead, only some forms of memory have been considered. In this paper we wish to address this failure. We are therefore primarily interested in exploring where memory exists within an organizational setting, rather than focusing on particular memory augmentations.
To do this we present a micro-level analysis of a domain that we find to be overflowing with organizational memory -- a telephone helpline for personnel issues.
We take an ethnographic based approach for data collection and base our analysis in distributed cognition theory [9, 13, 17]. The paper begins with a brief overview of the organizational memory literature.
We follow this with a description of the field site and data collection. Before beginning the detailed analysis, the next section provides a brief overview of distributed cognition theory.
This is followed with a detailed analysis of a hotline call, progressively describing the call, the work activity surrounding the call, and the memory used in the work activity. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for organizational memory research. Little of the literature rests on empirical examinations of organizational memory within a context of use.
Walsh and Ungson, in their review article , note that: Despite the general use of the term organizational memory, it is not clear that we have understood the concept or its implications for the management of organizations. To date, a myriad of unexamined conjectures has defined a concept that has even served as a basis for prescriptive management advice.
Organizational memory as a concept, especially at a grand level, has a number of theoretical problems. For example, an organization is hardly a single, unified entity, as the metaphor implies.
Generally, papers theorizing about organizational memory often theorize at a very grand scale, not relying on empirical data.
Walsh and Ungson do distinguish a number of general components of organizational memory. They include people, archives, organizational procedures, organizational structures, and culture.
We assume here that their omission of internal archives, such as computer databases and paper files, was an oversight. Other theoretical studies also lack an empirical base. Huber  argues that support for organizational learning and memory would be useful, but does not distinguish clearly what concretely constitutes organizational memory.
Stein and Zwass , while acknowledging the need for empirical studies, nonetheless rely on an information-processing model of the organization, again at a very grand scale.
Smith  uses a similar model. Most studies of organization memory have largely focused on the technology systems designed to replace human and paper-based memory systems. While many of these studies e.Profile of Dr Abdelhafid Zeghbib.
Biography; Sitemap; Biography. Publications / Journals. Research. Research Interests Brief description: Understanding the dynamics of cortical networks can help to formulate and test new biological models for some brain cognitive functions: audio-visual integration and associative memory.
But perception can be deceptive, and memory can be unreliable; even this kind of direct knowledge is not certain. And there are kinds of indirect knowledge of the future that can be as certain as anything we know by direct perception or memory.
Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. An inspiring vision can help people in an organization get excited about what they're doing, and increase their commitment to the organization.
Strategic planning links the present to the future, and shows how you intend to move toward your vision. One process of strategic planning is to. Mixing the tenses can help to show the cause and effect of interlocking events.
The use of the past perfect to describe the scene of an accident in the example above is effective because the past perfect shows what is already complete. The Brain: Memories Are Crucial for Looking Into the Future Without remembering how the past unfolded, trying to plan ahead is "like being in a room with nothing there and having a guy tell you to go find a chair.".
Human memory, like memory in a computer, allows us to store information for later use.
In order to do this, however, both the computer and we need to master three processes involved in memory. The first is called encoding; the process we use to transform information so that it can be stores.