Timeline of the 20th century Map of the British Empire as of At its height, it was the largest empire in history. Nationalism became a major political issue in the world in the 20th century, acknowledged in international law along with the right of nations to self-determinationofficial decolonization in the mid-century, and related regional conflicts. The century saw a major shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology, and medicine.
Looking Back at the Age of Extremes John Meakin Join me for a few minutes in a journey back in time to the beginning of this century. We are in Paris, the year isand we are in an optimistic, celebratory mood. The reason for the fifth Paris International Exposition, one of the largest and most ambitious international gatherings ever, is simple.
It is a celebration of the remarkable accomplishments of the 19th century—accomplishments that have dramatically changed society and the lot of the common man. But its horizons extend beyond the century just completed to the exciting prospects for the 20th century ahead.
To set the scene for the mood and emphasis of the exposition, we must briefly go back further in time. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Europe in the latter part of the 18th century, provided a sudden acceleration in technical development.
With the new steam engine as a basis, factories were rapidly transformed and the railways developed. During the 19th century the revolution continued apace and spread from Europe to the world. Understanding of electricity advanced and, with the invention of the dynamo, a whole new world of power and possibilities rapidly opened up.
In James Maxwell developed his theory of electromagnetic waves, and by the late s Marconi was busy inventing wireless telegraphy. In the next few years Marie and Pierre Curie carried out their pioneering work on radioactivity using radium.
The Paris Exposition, perhaps more than anything else, captured this sense of newly available powers. Electricity and the dynamo were much in evidence.
The 19th century may have belonged to Great Britain and the European powers, but the United States was developing fast.
It grew from 16 states in to 45 bywhile its population grew from 5 million to 76 million. The 20th century has far exceeded expectations for its progress as the newly discovered powers of one hundred years ago have been developed, refined and implemented on a wide scale.
In he conducted the first artificially induced nuclear reaction, which inspired succeeding generations of scientists to further examine the nature and properties of radiation and other nuclear phenomena.
The examination of the minutiae of matter progressively revealed the secrets of the very building blocks of matter, with enormous ramifications for greater understanding and advancement.
In developed countries, electric power for industry and the home became universally available—fueled by coal, oil, gas and nuclear generating plants. And with that power has come every conceivable kind of gadget and appliance to make life easier and more enjoyable—the radio, the television, the vacuum cleaner, the refrigerator, the washing machine, the microwave oven, the record player, the tape deck, the food processor, to name but a few examples.
And so we have the Walkman, the calculator, the cell phone and the laptop computer. It was the 19th-century ideas of Charles Babbage, who in conceived of building a large machine that would execute extended sequences of operations, that led to the development of the computer.
Mankind now had a radical tool with which to advance even faster than before.The Information Age in its infancy. WordNet defines the Information Age as a "period beginning in the last quarter of the 20th century when information became easily accessible through publications and through the manipulation of information by computers and computer networks.".
en Wiktionary terms it as "The current era, characterized by the increasing importance and availability of. construction, decreased from 31 to 19 percent of the workforce.
Service industries were the growth sector during the 20th century, jumping from 31 percent3 of all workers in to 78 percent4 in The labor force composition shifted in other ways too.
Female participation in the labor market grew dramatically in the 20th century. The eccentric British mathematician G.H.
Hardy is known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. But he is perhaps even better known for his adoption and mentoring of the self-taught Indian mathematical genius, Srinivasa Ramanujan. the Information Age is changing our environment and the institutions upon which we depend for our liberty, health, and happiness.
In this first volume, we will examine some of the broader issues of the Information Age. This is a major, wide-ranging history of analytic philosophy since , told by one of the tradition's leading contemporary figures.
The first volume takes the story from to mid-century. Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches.