Cognizable and non cognizable offences law essay

Indeed, the everyday work of the courts was never more completely shaped by abstract philosophical ideas than in the nineteenth century when lawyers affected to despise philosophy and jurists believed they had set up a self-sufficient science of law which stood in no need of any philosophical apparatus.

Cognizable and non cognizable offences law essay

Some of them include: On 21 January51 civilians were killed by CRPF troopers during protests against earlier raids in which wanton arrests and molestation of women were conducted by CRPF troops.

On January 25,two BSF patrolling parties in Handwara indiscriminately fired at peaceful protesters and killed 25 people. Many people were injured. The killers were not punished. At the funeral of Mirwaiz Muhammad Farooq on May 21, over 60 civilians were killed by paramilitary forces and hundreds injured in the indiscriminate firing on the funeral procession.

On 6 January Indian troops killed 55 civilians in the town of Sopore and set fire to many homes and buildings. On 22 October the Indian Army killed 51 civilians during protests over the siege of the Hazratbal Mosque.

On 27 January the Indian Army fired at and killed 27 civilians, mainly traders, in Kupwara district. Survivors say that the soldiers carried out the massacre to punish people for observing shutdown on January It also asserts that the security personnel are Kashmiris and "even surrendered militants".

The major was subsequently suspended and a senior soldier transferred from his post.

Cognizable and non cognizable offences law essay

This is often in association with torture or extrajudicial killing. The extent of male disappearances has been so large that a new term " half-widows " has been created for their wives who end up with no information of their husbands' whereabouts.

Human right activists estimate the number of disappeared to be over eight thousand, last seen in government detention. Of the bodies uncovered in 4 of the 14 districts, bodies were identified as missing locals in contrast to the Indian governments insistence that all the graves belong to foreign militants [88] [89] According to deposition submitted by Parvez Imroz and his field workers inthe total number of unmarked graves was more than 6, The report further stated that such extrajudicial killings were often administered within hours of arrest, and were carried out not as aberrations but as a "matter of policy".

US officials first showed concern regarding the widespread use of torture in where they presented evidence to Indian diplomats. The report suggests that one in six Kashmiris have faced torture.

In Imroz's study sample of 50 villages, more than 2, extreme cases of torture were identified and documented, where he found that there were 50 centers run by the army and paramilitaries where torture is practised since Rape during the Kashmir conflict Although both security forces and militants are guilty of rape, according to scholar Seema Kazi and Jeffrey Kenney, rape by the former outstrips the latter in both scale and frequency.

The fear, stress, tension, and uncertainty prevailing in the state are said to be the main reasons for this. According to a survey in17, people, mostly women, have committed suicide during the past 20 years in the Valley.

Like the women in other conflict zones, they have been raped, tortured, maimed and killed. A few of them were even jailed for years together. Kashmiri women are among the worst sufferers of sexual violence in the world. Sexual violence has been routinely perpetrated on Kashmiri women, with At the beginning of the insurgency there were patients in the valley's sole mental hospital.

Inthe hospital is said to have been overcrowded with more thanpatients. Report also urges to setup a COI to investigate the issue of human rights violations in Kashmir.

Pakistan welcomed the step while India rejected saying reports violates India's sovereignty. Further India says facts in the report are not authentic and misleading, use of term 'armed group' instead of terrorist group and 'leaders' instead of terrorists is not acceptable.Act of , which is referred to in this judgment as the Constitution.

Described in the epilogue to the Constitution as a date after 8 October and before 6 December I: The Function of Legal Philosophy. FOR twenty-four hundred years—from the Greek thinkers of the fifth century bc, who asked whether right was right by nature or only by enactment and convention, to the social philosophers of today, who seek the ends, the ethical basis and the enduring principles of social control—the philosophy of law has .

Inquiry: “Inquiry” according to the Code includes every inquiry other than a trial conducted under this Code, by a Magistrate or court. It relates to proceedings of Magistrates prior to trial.

[Section 2 (g)] Section of the Code empowers a Magistrate on receipt of a police report under Section , Cr.P.C. to hold a [ ]. The present volume is the second work published under the imprint of the Yale University Press in memory of Arthur P.

McKinstry, who died in New York City, July 21, Born in Winnebago City, Minnesota, on December 22, , he was graduated from Yale College in , and in received the degree of LL.B. magna cum laude from the Yale Law School, graduating at the head of his class.

CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF SOUTH AFRICA Case CCT 17/ THE AZANIAN PEOPLES ORGANIZATION (AZAPO) First Applicant NONTSIKELELO MARGARET BIKO Second Applicant.

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Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir - Wikipedia