Ocean current Wind blowing over the surface of the sea causes friction at the interface between air and sea.
Arctic shelves[ edit ] The ocean's Arctic shelf comprises a number of continental shelvesincluding the Canadian Arctic shelf, underlying the Canadian Arctic Archipelagoand the Russian continental shelfwhich is sometimes simply called the "Arctic Shelf" because it is greater in extent.
Of these three, the Siberian Shelf is the largest such shelf in the world. The whole area is subject to international territorial claims. Underwater features[ edit ] An underwater ridgethe Lomonosov Ridgedivides the deep sea North Polar Basin into two oceanic basins: The bathymetry of the ocean bottom is marked by fault block ridges, abyssal plainsocean deepsand basins.
Water flow[ edit ] Distribution of the major water mass in the Arctic Ocean.
Glacier: Glacier, any large mass of perennial ice that originates on land by the recrystallization of snow or other forms of solid precipitation and that shows evidence of past or present flow. Exact limits for the terms large, perennial, and flow cannot be set. Except in size, a small snow patch that. Glacier - Mountain glaciers: In this discussion the term mountain glaciers includes all perennial ice masses other than the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Those ice masses are not necessarily associated with mountains. Sometimes the term small glaciers is used, but only in a relative sense: a glacier 10, square kilometres (4, square miles) in surface area would not be called. Cho Oyu National Park: The park is situated among rolling, vast green (in May, June and September) short-grass and boulder strewn valleys leading up to the basecamp. The environment is beautiful and stark, inhabited with wild birds and animals. Upon arriving in basecamp by vehicle, you trek towards the mountain, where the vegetation changes to become more alpine and rocky, with Cho Oyu and.
The section sketches the different water masses along a vertical section from Bering Strait over the geographic North Pole to Fram Strait. As the stratification is stable, deeper water masses are more dense than the layers above.
Profiles of temperature and salinity for the Amundsen Basin, the Canadian Basin and the Greenland Sea are sketched in this cartoon. It remains relatively stable, Features of karakoram glacier surges the salinity effect on density is bigger than the temperature effect. It is fed by the freshwater input of the big Siberian and Canadian streams ObYeniseiLenaMackenziethe water of which quasi floats on the saltier, denser, deeper ocean water.
Between this lower salinity layer and the bulk of the ocean lies the so-called haloclinein which both salinity and temperature are rising with increasing depth. A copepod Because of its relative isolation from other oceans, the Arctic Ocean has a uniquely complex system of water flow.
Mean surface circulation is predominately cyclonic on the Eurasian side and anticyclonic in the Canadian Basin. The deepest water mass is called Arctic Bottom Water and begins around metres 3, feet depth.
Arctic shelf water and Greenland Sea Deep Water. Water in the shelf region that begins as inflow from the Pacific passes through the narrow Bering Strait at an average rate of 0. This water is met by Greenland Sea Deep Water, which forms during the passage of winter storms.
As temperatures cool dramatically in the winter, ice forms and intense vertical convection allows the water to become dense enough to sink below the warm saline water below. The overturning of this water plays a key role in global circulation and the moderation of climate.
In the depth range of — metres —2, feet is a water mass referred to as Atlantic Water. Inflow from the North Atlantic Current enters through the Fram Straitcooling and sinking to form the deepest layer of the halocline, where it circles the Arctic Basin counter-clockwise.
This is the highest volumetric inflow to the Arctic Ocean, equalling about 10 times that of the Pacific inflow, and it creates the Arctic Ocean Boundary Current. In fact, this water mass is actually warmer than the surface water, and remains submerged only due to the role of salinity in density.
Water in the Beaufort Gyre is far less saline than that of the Chukchi Sea due to inflow from large Canadian and Siberian rivers. The most important feature of this water mass is a section referred to as the sub-surface layer.
It is a product of Atlantic water that enters through canyons and is subjected to intense mixing on the Siberian Shelf. This insulation keeps the warm Atlantic Water from melting the surface ice. Additionally, this water forms the swiftest currents of the Arctic, with speed of around 0.
Waters originating in the Pacific and Atlantic both exit through the Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard Islandwhich is about 2, metres 8, feet deep and kilometres miles wide. This outflow is about 9 Sv.
Because of this, it is influenced by the Coriolis forcewhich concentrates outflow to the East Greenland Current on the western side and inflow to the Norwegian Current on the eastern side. With this dependence, the Arctic Ocean experiences variations due to seasonal changes in sea ice cover.
Sea ice movement is the result of wind forcing, which is related to a number of meteorological conditions that the Arctic experiences throughout the year.
For example, the Beaufort High—an extension of the Siberian High system—is a pressure system that drives the anticyclonic motion of the Beaufort Gyre.
In addition, there is a sea level pressure SLP ridge over Greenland that drives strong northerly winds through the Fram Strait, facilitating ice export. In the summer, the SLP contrast is smaller, producing weaker winds. A final example of seasonal pressure system movement is the low pressure system that exists over the Nordic and Barents Seas.The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Mediterranean Sea or simply the Arctic Sea, classifying it a mediterranean sea or an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean. It is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean.
The sea, the world ocean or simply the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen benjaminpohle.com has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land. More broadly, "the sea" is the interconnected system of Earth's salty, oceanic waters—considered as one global ocean or as several principal oceanic benjaminpohle.com sea moderates Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle.
Glacier: Glacier, any large mass of perennial ice that originates on land by the recrystallization of snow or other forms of solid precipitation and that shows evidence of past or present flow.
Exact limits for the terms large, perennial, and flow cannot be set. Except in size, a small snow patch that. Full-Service Mount Cho Oyu Expedition with SummitClimb leaders and Sherpas. Perhaps the best possible preparation for Everest. Glacier: Glacier, any large mass of perennial ice that originates on land by the recrystallization of snow or other forms of solid precipitation and that shows evidence of past or present flow.
Exact limits for the terms large, perennial, and flow cannot be set. Except in size, a small snow patch that.