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The Li family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy prevalent during the Sui dynasty   and claimed to be paternally descended from the Daoist founder, Laozi whose personal name was Li Dan or Li Er the Han dynasty General Li Guang  and Western Liang ruler Li Gao.
Li Yuan was Duke of Tang and governor of Taiyuan during the Sui dynasty's collapse, which was caused in part by the Sui failure to conquer the northern part of the Korean peninsula during the Goguryeo—Sui War.
In winterLi Yuan occupied Chang'anrelegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, and acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Yang You. Li Shimin had commanded troops since the age of 18, had prowess with bow and arrowsword and lance and was known for Shanghai tang harvard case effective cavalry charges.
He is conventionally known by his temple name Taizong. Although killing two brothers and deposing his father contradicted the Confucian value of filial piety Taizong showed himself to be a capable leader who listened to the advice of the wisest members of his council.
With this victory, the Turks accepted Taizong as their khagana title rendered as Tian Kehan in addition to his rule as emperor of China under the traditional title "Son of Heaven". Although she entered Emperor Gaozong's court as the lowly consort Wu Zhao, Wu Zetian rose to the highest seat of power inestablishing the short-lived Wu Zhou.
Empress Wu's rise to power was achieved through cruel and calculating tactics: Many suspected he was poisoned by Empress Wu. Although the next heir apparent kept a lower profile, in he was accused by Wu of plotting a rebellion and was banished.
He was later obliged to commit suicide. InEmperor Gaozong died. He was succeeded by Emperor Zhongzonghis eldest surviving son by Wu. Zhongzong tried to appoint his wife's father as chancellor: A palace coup on February 20,forced her to yield her position on February The next day, her son Zhongzong was restored to power; the Tang was formally restored on March 3.
She died soon after. The Small Wild Goose Pagodabuilt bywas adjacent to the Dajianfu Temple in Chang'an, where Buddhist monks gathered to translate Sanskrit texts into Chinese  There were many prominent women at court during and after Wu's reign, including Shangguan Wan'er —a poet, writer, and trusted official in charge of Wu's private office.
Two weeks later, Li Longji the later Emperor Xuanzong entered the palace with a few followers and slew Empress Wei and her faction. He then installed his father Emperor Ruizong r. During the year reign of Emperor Xuanzong, the Tang dynasty reached its height, a golden age with low economic inflation and a toned down lifestyle for the imperial court.
This policy ultimately created the conditions for a massive rebellion against Xuanzong. An Lushan was a half- Sogdianhalf- Turk Tang commander sincehad experience fighting the Khitans of Manchuria with a victory in  yet most of his campaigns against the Khitans were unsuccessful.
After a series of rebellions between and in today's Hebei, ShandongHubei and Henan provinces, the government had to officially acknowledge the jiedushi's hereditary ruling without accreditation.
The Tang government relied on these governors and their armies for protection and to suppress locals that would take up arms against the government. In return, the central government would acknowledge the rights of these governors to maintain their army, collect taxes and even to pass on their title to heirs.
Also, the abandonment of the equal-field system meant that people could buy and sell land freely. Many poor fell into debt because of this, forced to sell their land to the wealthy, which led to the exponential growth of large estates.
Then in a disastrous harvest shook the foundations of the empire; in some areas only half of all agricultural produce was gathered, and tens of thousands faced famine and starvation.
Rebuilding and recovery[ edit ] Xumi Pagodabuilt in Although these natural calamities and rebellions stained the reputation and hampered the effectiveness of the central government, the early 9th century is nonetheless viewed as a period of recovery for the Tang dynasty.
The commission began the practice of selling merchants the rights to buy monopoly saltwhich they would then transport and sell in local markets. In salt accounted for over half of the government's revenues.
Adshead writes that this salt tax represents "the first time that an indirect tax, rather than tribute, levies on land or people, or profit from state enterprises such as mines, had been the primary resource of a major state.
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In the early years, t.