Herodotus One theory claims that myths are distorted accounts of historical events. Apollo represents the sun, Poseidon represents water, and so on.
However, much of this material ought to be carefully examined and critically evaluated. Gutas has argued that the autobiography is a literary device to represent Avicenna as a philosopher who acquired knowledge of all the philosophical sciences through study and intuition al-hadsa cornerstone of his epistemological theory.
Thus the autobiography is an attempt to demonstrate that humans can achieve the highest knowledge through intuition. We will return to his epistemology later but first what can we say about his life? Avicenna was born in around in Afshana, a village near Bukhara in Transoxiana.
His father, who may have been Ismaili, was a local Samanid governor. This training and the excellent library of the physicians at the Samanid court assisted Avicenna in his philosophical self-education.
Thus, he claimed to have mastered all the sciences by the The interpretations of the indian creation myth of 18 and entered into the service of the Samanid court of Nuh ibn Mansur r. After the death of his father, it seems that he was also given an administrative post.
Around the turn of the millennium, he moved to Gurganj in Khwarazm, partly no doubt to the eclipse of Samanid rule after the Qarakhanids took Bukhara in There he first met his disciple and scribe Juzjani. After a year, he entered Buyid service as a physician, first with Majd al-Dawla in Rayy and then in in Hamadan where he became vizier of Shams al-Dawla.
Based in Isfahan, he was widely recognized as a philosopher and physician and often accompanied his patron on campaign. It was during one of these to Hamadan in that he died of colic.
An arrogant thinker who did not suffer fools, he was fond of his slave-girls and wine, facts which were ammunition for his later detractors. Works Avicenna wrote his two earliest works in Bukhara under the influence of al-Farabi. Aristotle, that covers the natural sciences, logic, mathematics, metaphysics and theology.
It was this work that through its Latin translation had a considerable impact on scholasticism. It was solicited by Juzjani and his other students in Hamadan in and although he lost parts of it on a military campaign, he completed it in Isfahan by According to Gutas it was written in Isfahan in the early s; according to Michot, it dates from an earlier period in Hamadan and possibly Rayy.
One further work that has inspired much debate is The Easterners al-Mashriqiyun or The Eastern Philosophy al-Hikma al-Mashriqiya which he wrote at the end of the s and is mostly lost. In certain cases the Latin manuscripts of the text predate the extant Arabic ones and ought to be considered more authoritative.
The main significance of the Latin corpus lies in the interpretation for Avicennism andAvicennism, in particular forregarding his doctrines on the nature of the soul and his famous existence-essence distinction more about that below andbelowalong with the debates and censure that they raised in scholastic Europe, in particular in ParisEurope.
This was particularly the case in Paris, where Avicennism waslater proscribed in However, the influence of his psychology and theory of knowledge upon William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus have been noted. More significant is the impact of his metaphysics upon the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas.
His other major work to be translated into Latin was his medical treatise the Canon, which remained a text-book into the early modern period and was studied in centrescenters of medical learning such as Padua.
Logic Logic is a critical aspect of, and propaedeutic to, Avicennan philosophy. On the age-old debate whether logic is an instrument of philosophy Peripatetic view or a part of philosophy Stoic viewhe argues that such a debate is futile and meaningless.
Logic is the standard by which concepts—or the mental "existence" that corresponds to things that occur in extra-mental reality—can be judged and hence has both implications for what exists outside of the mind and how one may articulate those concepts through language.
More importantly, logic is a key instrument and standard for judging the validity of arguments and hence acquiring knowledge. Salvation depends on the purity of the soul and in particular the intellect that is trained and perfected through knowledge.
Of particular significance for later debates and refutations is his notion that knowledge depends on the inquiry of essential definitions hadd through syllogistic reasoning. Ontology From al-Farabi, Avicenna inherited the Neoplatonic emanationist scheme of existence.
Contrary to the classical Muslim theologians, he rejected creation ex nihilo and argued that cosmos has no beginning but is a natural logical product of the divine One. The super-abundant, pure Good that is the One cannot fail to produce an ordered and good cosmos that does not succeed him in time.
The cosmos succeeds God merely in logical order and in existence. Consequently, Avicenna is well known as the author of one an important and influential proof for the existence of God. The argument runs as follows: There is existence, or rather our phenomenal experience of the world confirms that things exist, and that their existence is non-necessary because we notice that things come into existence and pass out of it.
Contingent existence cannot arise unless it is made necessary by a cause. A causal chain in reality must culminate in one un-caused cause because one cannot posit an actual infinite regress of causes a basic axiom of Aristotelian science.Native American Myths of Creation.
Apache. Myth 1. In the beginning was only Tepeu and Gucumatz (Feathered Serpent) who also wintry the name benjaminpohle.com two sat together and thought, and whatever they thought came into being.
Here is one of the creation stories from Hindu mythology. Before this time began, there was no heaven, no earth and no space between.
A vast dark ocean washed upon the shores of nothingness and licked the edges of the night. The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth [Laurel Thatcher Ulrich] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
They began their existence as everyday objects, but in the hands of award-winning historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich. The creation of the people, animals, birds, trees, etc takes place hereafter. Myth 2 Animals, elements, the solar system, and natural phenomena are revered by the Apaches.
Myth: Myth, a symbolic narrative, usually of unknown origin and at least partly traditional, that ostensibly relates actual events and that is especially associated with religious belief.
It is distinguished from symbolic behaviour (cult, ritual) and symbolic places or objects (temples, icons). Myths are. Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (c. —) Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina is better known in Europe by the Latinized name “Avicenna.” He is probably the most significant philosopher in the Islamic tradition and arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era.