The widespread use of clinical chemistry test in veterinary diagnosis

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The widespread use of clinical chemistry test in veterinary diagnosis

To address these issues globally, the international organization Kidney Disease: Abnormalities include one of two factors: Essential and Elusive GFR, which represents the total amount of blood filtered through the glomerulus in the kidney, is the best overall index of kidney function.

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GFR can only be determined by measuring the clearance of a substance from blood into urine 4. However, for the clearance of this substance to truly reflect GFR, the substance must meet the following characteristics: Freely filtered at the glomerulus; Produced at a constant rate, so stable blood concentrations are maintained; Neither secreted nor reabsorbed by the renal tubules; No extra-renal elimination pathways; and Physiologically inert.

To date, no single known biomarker produced by the human body meets all these characteristics. As a result, laboratories use clearance of exogenous markers such as iothalamate and iohexol as a reference method for determining GFR, while using serum measurement of endogenous markers such as creatinine and cystatin C for estimating GFR eGFR.

Consequently, clinical laboratories rely on serum creatinine to screen for kidney disease. Creatinine is the waste product of interconversion between phosphocreatine and creatine in muscle cells.

Thus, the amount of creatinine produced in an individual every day is fairly constant and correlates with muscle mass.

The widespread use of clinical chemistry test in veterinary diagnosis

However, muscle mass varies widely among individuals, and creatinine varies significantly by age, sex, and race. But while these equations improve accuracy, they do not account for other non-renal factors that affect creatinine, such as diet, certain medications, and amputations 4.

In patients with these factors, as well as in those with abnormally low or high muscle mass, cystatin C is the recommended marker for eGFR.

The widespread use of clinical chemistry test in veterinary diagnosis

Cystatin C has been shown to be superior to creatinine as a marker of kidney function and for eGFR 5. However, cystatin C is also influenced by non-renal factors such as inflammation, thyroid function, and obesity 4and is a much more expensive test than creatinine.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine ADMA and SDMA both are produced consistently by hydrolysis of histones with post-translational methylation of arginine residues.

Furthermore, a meta-analysis of 18 studies published in showed a highly significant correlation between SDMA and kidney function 6. Importantly, in the absence of kidney disease, SDMA concentrations were not affected by hepatic disease, CVD, diabetes, or an acute inflammatory response.

SDMA has other advantages as a biomarker, including its low intra-individual biological variability 5. On the other hand, SDMA levels have been shown to be slightly increased based on age and sex, so it is likely that a GFR estimating equation using SDMA would need to take into account at least these two variables.

These studies reported correlations ranging from 0.

Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

Another important characteristic of SDMA is its early rise in the pathological process of kidney dis-ease.In clinical chemistry it has been suggested as a proliferation marker for prognosis, verification of diagnosis, control of treatment (particularly as a companion diagnostic) and follow-up of .

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Start studying Classification Systems and Secondary Data Sources. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. C. code the condition as abnormal blood chemistry Which classification system was developed to standardize terminology and .

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